Landscapes of Speculation (Villae at Mt. Circeo)
       
     
Villa Tiberius I
       
     
Villa Tiberius II
       
     
Villa Adriana
       
     
Otium at Ponza
       
     
Otium at Ponza II
       
     
Villa della Vignacce
       
     
Landscapes of Speculation (Villae at Mt. Circeo)
       
     
Landscapes of Speculation (Villae at Mt. Circeo)

Alpha, in investment terms, is the return achieved by the elite few who attempt to beat the contemporaneous market. This folly notion relies on lottery-style dynamics where there are few winners. Ancient Romans participated in these investments in the form of sprawling agri-/aqua-cultural villas.  Strategically placed around the empire, their consumption of resources and perpetual one-upmanship may have cost the Roman empire its very stability.

Villa Tiberius I
       
     
Villa Tiberius I
Villa Tiberius II
       
     
Villa Tiberius II
Villa Adriana
       
     
Villa Adriana
Otium at Ponza
       
     
Otium at Ponza
Otium at Ponza II
       
     
Otium at Ponza II
Villa della Vignacce
       
     
Villa della Vignacce